https://www.mesubjects.net/wp-admin/post.php?post=3585&action=edit       Fluid motion Kinematics

https://www.mesubjects.net/wp-admin/post.php?post=4580&action=edit     Vorticity and rotation

https://www.mesubjects.net/wp-admin/post.php?post=3528&action=edit      Types of fluid flow-2

https://www.mesubjects.net/wp-admin/post.php?post=3518&action=edit      Types of fluid flow-1

https://www.mesubjects.net/wp-admin/post.php?post=3419&action=edit       Fluid properties & forces

https://www.mesubjects.net/wp-admin/post.php?post=7509&action=edit       Cavitation

https://www.mesubjects.net/wp-admin/post.php?post=7540&action=edit        MCQ cavitation

https://www.mesubjects.net/wp-admin/post.php?post=7515&action=edit       Drag

https://www.mesubjects.net/wp-admin/post.php?post=3430&action=edit       Hydro Forces on Surfaces

https://www.mesubjects.net/wp-admin/post.php?post=4823&action=edit        Pressure Drop-3

https://www.mesubjects.net/wp-admin/post.php?post=4814&action=edit        Pressure Drop-2

https://www.mesubjects.net/wp-admin/post.php?post=2638&action=edit        Pressure Drop-1

https://www.mesubjects.net/wp-admin/post.php?post=709&action=edit          Q. ANS. Hydro Boundary Layer

https://www.mesubjects.net/wp-admin/post.php?post=7521&action=edit       MCQ water Hammer


Water hammer is also called a fluid hammer or Hydraulic Shock’ or a water blow.  It largely takes place in liquids but to a limited extent it can also be present in gases. It is a very high pressure wave created due to sudden change in momentum which is due to sudden stop of a moving fluid or due to a sudden change in flow direction. This causes a very high pressure wave which can cause a big harm to the equipment (pipe, valve, pump etc.).  It can cause bursting of pipes or pipe fittings. It may be due an obstruction such as a bend or a valve or sudden closure of valve in the pipeline having liquid flow at high velocity. This pressure wave will move backward and forward. It is a system as well as a safety issue.


Usually this occurs when a valve such as a tap or faucet closes quickly. Water hammer can generate very high pressure wave as explained below:

F = m (dv/dt)

In this dv is large and dt is small  and hence the force is greatly magnified i.e. almost infinite value of force. But there is some safety the valve closure can be abrupt it may take some small time and hence it may not be so sudden for a valve closure. But it can be sudden from pumps point of view that the pump is being off may be due to disruption of power. The elasticity modulus of pipe as well as for fluid can play a significant role in managing  the water hammer effect.


It can be due to the following reasons:

  1. Gradual closure of valve
  2. Sudden closure of valve in a rigid pipe
  3. Sudden closure of valve in an elastic pipe


  1. Magnitude of flow velocity in the pipe
  2. Time interval in closing the valve
  3. length of the pipe
  4. Pipe material elastic modulus
  5. Presence of very High water pressure
  6. Poor anchoring of pipes with the structure
  7. Absence of any dampening system(springs) to absorb shock waves


(i) If this wave reaches the velocity of sound, there will be a high knocking sound.

(ii) A very high pressure wave may burst the pipe line, pipe fittings, a valve or the pump.


Let L be the length of pipe. Total length to and fro will be = 2L

C is the velocity of pressure wave normally called as CELERITY, in

(m/s) and is given as C = E/ρwater

Then time taken to travel pressure wave back and forth

t = 2L/C,

Now let the time to close the valve be tv

CASE 1: If  tv > 2L/C then closing of valve is gradual and there is absolutely no chance of a water hammer.

CASE II: If t< 2L/C then closure of the valve is sudden. There are prime chances of a water hammer being present.

The velocity of pressure C is given by

C = (E/ρwater)

Therefore Velocity C depends upon

  • Elasticity modulus of pipe material
  • Density of liquid
  • Method of fixing of pipe

Therefore as far as possible the time taken to close valve should be > 2L/C