EMISSONS INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES

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EMISSONS INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES

DEFINITION

Emission of an IC engine is hot mixture of gases coming out of the engine and going to the atmosphere.

CONSTITUENTS

These emissions may contain Carbon dioxide (Co2), Carbon monoxide (Co), un-burnt hydrocarbons (UBHC),Oxides of nitrogen (Nox), sulfur dioxide (SO2), Aldehyde, lead, water vapor, smoke and particulate matter (PM).

HARMFUL EFFECTS OF EMISSIONS

  1. These emissions create pollution of the atmosphere.
  2. These emissions are very harmful to all types of life like humans, plants, birds and insects.
  3. Aldehyde, phenol, ether and oxides of nitrogen react with atmospheric air in the presence of sunlight produce smog which causes irritation in eyes and respiratory problems like Bronchitis and Asthma. Smog also reduces visibility which is dangerous in driving.
  4. Sulfur dioxide reacts with water to form sulfuric acid which increases corrosion and causes irritation to eyes.
  5. Co and Nox lowers hemoglobin’s in blood and increases respiratory troubles.
  6. Lead causes skin cancers.

LIMITING STANDARD FOR EMISSIONS

There are European standards for limiting the pollutants in exhaust emissions. These are meant for improving air quality and thus health. These are in the form of Euro I, Euro-II, Euro-III, Euro-IV, Euro-V, and Euro- VI. Euro VI is the latest limits which are reproduced below:

FOR PETROL

  1. CO- 1 g/km
  2. HC 0.110 g/km
  3. Nox – 0.06 g/km
  4. PM 0.005 g/km

FOR DIESEL

  1. CO- 0.50 g/km
  2. (HC+ NOx) 0.17 g/km
  3. Nox – 0.08 g/km
  4. PM 0.006 g/km

CONTROLLING STEPS FOR EMISSIONS

Emission control may be achieved by modifying the engine design involving compression ratio, combustion chamber, valve timings, changes in engine cooling system, changes in fuel supply system , ignition-injection controls and treatment of exhaust gases by the use of catalytic converters.

STEPS TO REDUCE EMISSIONS

Overall points to reduce harmful emissions are the followings:

  1. Use of unleaded petrol of Octane number greater than 87.
  2. Keep the engine properly tuned. There should be no misfiring.
  3. Do not keep the engine idling for longer periods.
  4. Never run the engine with choke in pulled condition.
  5. Never turn the ignition key to OFF POSITION while coming down a hill.