STEAM TURBINES–Definition and comparison with Reciprocating Steam Engine STEAM TURBINES Steam turbine is a prime mover which gets its rotary motion from the gradual change in momentum of steam jet by simply changing the direction of the jet which is coming at high velocity from nozzles and striking the blades of the turbine. ADVANTAGES OF […]
THERMODYNAMIC—COMPARISON BETWEEN A NOZZLE AND A DIFFUSER, VELOCITY OF STEAM AT ANY SECTION, NOZZLE EFFICIENCY, VELOCITY COEFFICIENT, DESIGN AND HIGHLIGHTS COMPARISON OF NOZZLES AND DIFFUSER Nozzle DIFFUSER Boundary layer is thin Boundary layer is thick. Has negligible friction Has more friction. Has favorable gradient Unfavorable […]
THERMODYNAMICS: Nozzle and diffuser Definition of a nozzle It is a duct (passage) of variable cross section (area decreases from entrance onwards) in which velocity increases and pressure decreases. It is true as long as velocity at the inlet of the nozzle is sub-sonic i.e. velocity is less the velocity of sound or Mach number […]
THERMODYNAMIC POTENTIALS AND THERMODYNAMIC PARAMETERS—-SHEET 9—-AVAILABILITY, UNAVAILABILITY AND IR-REVERSIBILITY AND CONCLUSIONS 10. AVAILABILITY, UNAVAILABILITY AND IR-REVERSIBILITY (a) Available Energy Available energy is related to the energy grade.There are two grades of energy available from the various sources. HIGH GRADE ENERGY—Can be fully converted useful work (Shaft Work) and is not governed by the Second Law […]
THERMODYNAMIC POTENTIALS AND THERMODYNAMIC PARAMETERS—-SHEET 8—-TRANSPORT PROPERTIES—–SPECIFIC HEATS, VISCOSITY AND THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY 5. TRANSPORT PROPERTIES–three These include the specific heat, viscosity and thermal conductivity. SPECIFIC HEATS There can be three values of Cp and three values of Cv depending upon whether the gas is monoatomic, diatomic or polyatomic. As per Equi-partition theorem, energy […]
THERMODYNAMIC POTENTIALS AND THERMODYNAMIC PARAMETERS —SHEET 7 —- TEMPERATURE ENTROPY CHART AND PRESSURE ENTHALPY CHART TEMPERATURE ENTROPY CHART As entropy is a thermodynamic parameter (property) like other thermodynamic parameters namely internal energy/enthalpy, it is used as abscissa (x –co-ordinate) and ABSOLUTE temperature as the ordinate. This chart is very useful in comparing the performance of […]
THERMODYNAMIC POTENTIALS AND THERMODYNAMIC PARAMETERS — SHEET 6 —THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES–INTERNAL ENERGY, ENTROPY AND ENTHALPY 6. THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES (a) Fundamental Thermodynamic Properties–three Measurable properties like temperature, pressure and volume are the three fundamental thermodynamic properties. (b) Derived Thermodynamic Properties–three Non measureable properties like internal energy, enthalpy and entropy are called derived thermodynamic properties. Definition of internal energy […]
THERMODYNAMIC POTENTIALS AND THERMODYNAMIC PARAMETERS—–SHEET 5——-THERMODYNAMIC TEMPERATURE AND THERMODYNAMIC SCALE THERMODYNAMIC TEMPERATURE Development of Thermodynamic Temperature Scale and its Practical Utility Temperature is due to the random translation, rotational motions and vibrations of the submicroscopic particle constituents of matter. These motions constitute the internal energy of a substance. Thermodynamic temperature is the measure of the […]
THERMODYNAMIC POTENTIALS AND THERMODYNAMIC PARAMETERS—- SHEET 4—-THERMODYNAMIC PARAMETERS, Laws of Thermodynamics and Datum in Thermodynamics THERMODYNAMIC PARAMETERS Principle of Maximum Entropy and that of Minimum Energy are equivalent. Laws of Thermodynamics Datum in Thermodynamics Thermodynamic Temperature Thermodynamic Scale Thermodynamic Properties Transport Properties Temperature Entropy Chart Pressure Enthalpy Chart Availability, Unavailability And Irreversibility Principle of Maximum […]
THERMODYNAMIC POTENTIALS AND THERMODYNAMIC PARAMETERS—-SHEET 3—Natural variables, Maxwell relations and Exact differentials dU, dW and dQ NATURAL VARIABLES The variables which are kept constant in a process are called the natural variables of that potential. Thermodynamic potential can be found as a function of its natural variables only. Then only the thermodynamic properties of the […]