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  • Reciprocating and rotary compressors

    Reciprocating and rotary compressors

    Reciprocating and rotary compressors Sr. No. ASPECT RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS ROTARY COMPRESSORS 1. Physical motion These employ piston cylinder device with to and fro motion. These employ an impeller with rotary motion. 2. Pressure rise per stage Discharge pressure is high and gives a pressure ratio of 4 to 7 per stage. Discharge pressure is low […]


  • Thin spherical shell

    Thin spherical shell

     Thin spherical shell  Stresses in a thin spherical shell Hoop stress or Tangential stress or Circumferential stress(σh)———-It acts in the tangential direction at the point of consideration Hoop stress or Tangential stress or Circumferential stress(σh)———-It acts in the tangential direction at the point of consideration Radial stress(σr)———-It acts in the radial direction at the point […]


  • Thin cylindrical shell

    Thin cylindrical shell

    THIN CYLINDRICAL SHELL Thin shell A vessel is a thin if its thickness is less as compared to its diameter. Mathematically it is expressed as a thin shell if D/t.  A vessel is a thin shell where stresses are assumed to be uniform. Uniform stresses mean stress at the inner to outer radius is of […]


  • Highlights of combustion in internal combustion engines

    Highlights of combustion in internal combustion engines

    Highlights of combustion in internal combustion engines Combustion is rapid burning of the air fuel mixture (carbon + Oxygen and hydrogen + oxygen) to liberate heat energy. Process of combustion takes place differently in spark ignition engines and diesel engines.  In spark ignition engines (Petrol engines or gasoline engines), combustion takes place by igniting the […]


  • Emissions-Internal combustion engine

    Emissions-Internal combustion engine

    Emissions-Internal combustion engine DEFINITION Emission of an IC engine is hot mixture of gases coming out of the engine. CONSTITUENTS These emissions may contain Carbon dioxide (Co2), Carbon monoxide (Co), un-burnt hydrocarbons (UBHC),Oxides of nitrogen (Nox), sulfur dioxide (SO2), Aldehyde, lead, water vapor, smoke and particulate matter (PM). HARMFUL EFFECTS OF EMISSIONS These emissions create […]


  • Turbochargers and  superchargers

    Turbochargers and superchargers

    SUPERCHARGERS AND TURBOCHARGERS DEFINITION The process of increasing the density of inlet air in internal combustion engines. This increases the power output of the engine. It  is called supercharging.  Methods of supercharging  Engine driven superchargers Rotary blowers Centrifugal compressors Turbochargers driven by exhaust gases of the engine Advantages of supercharging Increase in power output Reduction […]


  • Thick Cylindrical vessel-3

    Thick Cylindrical vessel-3

    Thick Cylindrical  vessel-3 Pre-stresses Refer to Fig. below: Fig. Pre-stresses                       Fig. Resultant stress variation PRE-STRESSES (due to hoop shrinking) Stress AB = –2psr22/ (r22 –r12)  compressive Stress CD = ps(r32+r22)/ (r32 –r22)    Tensile STRESSES DUE TO FLUID PRESSURE Stress AA’ = p((r32+r12)/ (r32 –r12) Stress CC’ = […]


  • Radial deflection-thick shell

    Radial deflection-thick shell

    Radial deflection-thick shell Hoop shrinking Hot Outer cylinder (called the jacket with radii as r2 and r3) is put on to the inner cylinder (with radii as r1 and r2). Then it is allowed to cool. A pressure will be developed both on the jacket and the cylinder. Let ps is the shrinkage pressure developed […]


  • Thick Cylindrical Shell-2

    Thick Cylindrical Shell-2

      Thick Cylindrical Shell-2 1. Only internal pressure pi  is there and po =0 σhmax = [pi(ri2+ro2]/ (ro2 –ri2) σhmax  >  pi σr max = pi σhmax > σr max Both σhmax and σr max occur at the innermost radius and σhmax is always greater than the σr max. This shown in the Fig. This […]


  • Lame’s equations

    Lame’s equations

    LAME’S EQUATIONS Lame’s Equations are σh = β/r2 + α σr = β/r2 – α Where α and β are Lame’s constants There is a thick vessel subjected to internal fluid pressure pi at the inner radius ri and external fluid pressure po at the outer radius ro respectively. We want to find the equations […]