Engineering Drawing—-ISOMETRIC PROJECTIONS ISOMETRIC PROJECTION It is 3-dimensional view of an object on a reduced scale. Sizes on this are 81.5 % of the true sizes. These are drawn from given front view, top view and side view. There are only true dimensions on the front, top and side views. ISOMETRIC AXES In this, […]
Engineering Drawing—-DEVELOPMENT OF SURFACES DEVELOPMENT OF SURFACES Cut the one surface of the solid and open it to layout on a sheet of paper is called development of surfaces. It is used in surfaces made out of a sheet. It should be insured that every line on the development gives the true length. METHODS OF […]
Engineering Drawing————-INTERSECTIONS OF SURFACES INTERSECTIONS OF SURFACES It means that one surface is entering another surface OR A surface is to be connected to another surface. It may be easy to connect any shape object into a plane wall. But it is very difficult for curved surfaces. For example a pipe is to be connected […]
ENGINEERING DRAWING—-SECTION OF SOLIDS SECTION OF SOLIDS Section views are a very important for designing an object or a machine. Section of solids improve clarity and reveal interior features of parts which are other wise not visible. Sections of solids are based on the use of an imaginary cutting plane to reveal the interior details. Its importance increases […]
ENGINEERING DRAWING—-PROJECTIONS OF SOLIDS PROJECTIONS OF SOLIDS WHAT IS A SOLID? ANS: Every solid phase substance in the universal is 3-dimensional. Hence every solid substance is a solid. For example, book, wall, table, chair, fan, pen etc. TYPES OF SOLIDS—-TWO TYPES Polyhedra (Regular polyhedral Have number of faces, equal and regular, ir-regular polyhedral which unequal […]
Engineering Drawing—-Projection of Oblique Planes PROJECTION OF OBLIQUE PLANES An oblique plane is one which is inclined to both HP and VP. These can be expressed as two different cases. CASE1 The surface of the given oblique plane, say, is inclined at ϴ to HP and at Ф to VP and has one edge or […]
Engineering Drawing———Projections and Traces of a plane PROJECTION OF PLANES In actual practice, one is interested to draw the projections of a solid. But it is started with the projection of points. Number of points makes a line, then projections of a line is done. Lines form planes and hence then projections of a plane […]
Engineering Drawing———–ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS Orthographic projections represent a three dimensional object on a 2 dimensional drawing sheet using multi-views of an object at right angles to each other. The difference between Orthographic Projection and any other drawing projection method is that several 2D views of the object are used instead of a single view. […]
Thermodynamics: Losses in steam turbines LOSSES IN STEAM TURBINES There are two main types of losses in a steam turbine. (a) Internal losses (Due to flow of steam inside the turbine) (b) External losses (Losses not concerned with steam) The internal losses in steam turbines may be enumerated as follows: Losses due to steam Leakage (i) Steam leakage in […]
FILL IN THE BLANKS FOR REFRIGERANTS The gas which is a working substance in a refrigerating system is called the ————————-. Refrigerant is used for producing———————in the evaporator. The chemical formula for R-22 is———————————. The gas which serves as a medium of transferring heat from one place to ——is called refrigerant. Ammonia boils at […]